Did you know that 1\4 of the worlds population is myopic? Myopia is simply a condition in which the eye focuses an object in front of the retina creating a blurred effect. 
Consider the eye like a camera. If an object is, let's say, 10 feet away, and the camera is focused for one foot, the image will reach a focusing point in front of the film. The picture will turn out blurry, out of focus, just as it does in the nearsighted eye. Myopia tends to progress until the early to middle twenties, by then the eye usually becomes stable. Increases over time in the spectacle prescription would be in small steps; however, there are exceptions! These exceptions can be due to cataracts, diabetes or something caused by pathological myopia. These conditions would cause the prescription changes and fluctuations in vision to be larger. Higher amounts of myopia tend to be  hereditary. If there is a moderate or highly nearsighted parent, the odds for one of the children to be myopic are higher.
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With this condition, the image is not coming into focus on the retina, but  "behind" the retina. Therefore, when the image reaches the retina, it is still in a blurry form. 
How far behind the retina the image would come into focus  depends on the amount of farsightedness one has. What causes the eye to be hyperopic or farsighted? If the cornea is too flat and therefore not strong enough, or if the eye is smaller than average, the image is  going to come into focus "behind" the retina. Using the camera analogy: The optical system of the camera, our eye, is failing to make the picture come into focus on the film, our retina. Unlike myopia, an eye with this refractive condition  usually is stable before the age of twenty. Nevertheless, there are exceptions.
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A condition in which the lens of your eye loses flexibility making it difficult to focus on close objects.  It is natural to lose enough flexibility by your mid 40's to be noticeable.

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Astigmatism means that the cornea, or window, of the eye is not round or spherical. A cornea without astigmatism is spherical like a basketball. A cornea with astigmatism is shaped more like a football, with two different curvatures, one steeper than the other. 
The flatter curve is weaker and therefore doesn't focus the image as much as the steeper, more powerful curve. The result is an eye with two different points of focus, giving you blurry vision. The image may not only be blurred, but may be seen as a doubled or distorted image.
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Anatomy of the Eye
The retina is the part of the eye that receives light and interprets shape and form, then sends the signal to the brain.  

Vitreous Humor is the jelly like fluid that fills the eye. 

The lens of your eye works much like the lens of a camera or magnifying glass. It focuses light onto the retina

The cornea is the thin clear layer on the outer most part of the eye that provides protection from outside forces.

The pupil is the small opening in the eye that light passes through to eventually reach the retina.

The iris works just like that of a camera expanding and constricting to allow more or less light to reach the retina.

The anterior chamber is the area between the iris and the cornea filled with a clear aqueous fluid.

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(Cross Eyed)

This condition is a misalignment of the eyes. One or both eyes may turn in, up, out, or down.  Treatment includes prismatic glasses, contacts, visual therapy, and in some cases surgery.

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(Lazy Eye)

A weakness or vision loss in one eye that can not be fully corrected with glasses.  It normally begins in childhood, and can be minimized if detected early by placing a patch over the unaffected eye in order to strengthen the weaker.

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Color Blindness

Color blindness is actually a misnomer.  Color deficiency is more appropriate.  Color deficiency is the inability to distinguish shades of red\green or yellow\blue.  About 1 in 8 men is color deficient as opposed to 1 in 200 women.

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(Pink Eye)

A communicable infection resulting in the inflammation of the thin, transparent layer of the eyelid, as well as the surface of the cornea.

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A condition caused by the increase of fluid in the eye resulting in increased inner ocular pressure that damages the optic nerve.  Symptoms include tunnel vision, pain, blurred vision, appearance of colored rings around lights, or no signs at all.  It frequently occurs in people over 40 and will result in blindness if not diagnosed early.

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Macular Degeneration
Changes to a portion of the retina called the macula at the back of the eye resulting in a gradual loss of central vision.  Objects appear distorted, color vision weakens, and a dark area appears at the center.
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Retinal Detachment

The separation of the retina from the pigment caused by holes or tears in the retina, by a tumor, or by fluid pressure in the area.  It can be surgically treated.  Aside from a sudden loss of vision, warning signs might include light flashes or unusual spots or floaters. 

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Vitreous Floaters

Small particles of protein or other matter of various size and shape that float within the eye.  They appear to dart away when you try and focus on them.  Most spots are not harmful and rarely inhibit vision.  However, spots may be indicative of more serious problems.  You should consult your optometrist if you notice them often, or a sudden increase.

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A cataract is a clouding that develops in the normally clear lens of the eye. this prevents the lens from properly focusing light on the retina. Cataracts usually develop in both eyes, but often at different rates. Some some cataracts develop over a period of years, while others form rapidly in a few months.

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Diabetic Retinopathy
A condition in which small changes in the small blood vessel in the retina causing vision blurriness and distortion associated with diabetes.
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